Native American Wars Fact 1: The Spanish conquistadores came in search of gold and religious conversions. Many of the farming tribes who inhabited New Mexico were enslaved and suffered harsh treatment from the Spanish
Native American Wars Fact 2: The Tiguex War of 1540 - 1541 was the first war that fought between Europeans and Native Americans. The battles were fought by the Spanish army of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado against the Tiwa tribe of Pueblo Indians in New Mexico. The Tiguex War ended with the surrender of the Tiwa Native Indians and many of the captives were burned at the stake.
Native American Wars Fact 3: The French traded for furs in the regions around the Great Lakes and rivalry and competition between the tribes, aiming to establish a fur trading monopoly, led to bitter warfare between many of the tribes.
Native American Wars Fact 4: The Iroquois Confederacy was founded c1550 and aimed to create an empire by incorporating subservient, conquered tribes. The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars, were fought 1640 - 1701
Native American Wars Fact 5: English colonists in the Northeast were at first greeted with friendship but culture clashhes inevitably led to conflicts
Native American Wars Fact 6: The Powhatan Wars, erupted in Virginia between English colonists and the Powhatan tribe. The series of three wars were fought between 1609 to 1646 and resulted in the defeat of the Powhatan tribe.
Native American Wars Fact 7: The violent Pequot War was fought Native Indians of Connecticut and Rhode Island were defeated by the colonists led by John Underhill and John Mason, and the Narragansetts and Mohegans who were their allies. Many native Indians were killed and others sold into slavery
Native American Wars Fact 8: In 1675 various Native Indian tribes in New England formed an alliance to resist white settlement. It was led by Metacomet of the Wampanoag tribe, who was called King Philip by the colonists. The ensuing conflicts were known as King Philip's War which was fought 1675 - 1677
Native American Wars Fact 9: Native Americans then became caught up in a long series of conflicts between England and France for dominance in North America. The series of wars became known as the French and Indian Wars and were fought from 1688 - 1763. The British were victorious but before long the Americans became involved in the War of Independence
Native American Wars Fact 10: During the American Revolution (1775- 1783) many Native Indian tribes fought for the British which provoked retaliatory campaigns by the Continental Army such as that of General John Sullivan on the Iroquois of New York.
Native American Wars Fact 11: The Cherokee Wars broke out towards the end of the War of Independence when the Cherokees were allied to the British. The Cherokee Wars were intermittent conflicts that lasted until 1794
Native American Wars Fact 12: The new United States government encouraged Westward Expansion and the number of conflicts between settlers and various Native Indian tribes began to escalate
Native American Wars Fact 13: The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795) in Indiana and Ohio led by Little Turtle saw Americans suffer two humiliating defeats by the Native Americans before they won the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
Native American Wars Fact 14: During the War of 1812 many of the Native Indians again sided with the British. Tecumseh, a leader of the Shawnees, organized several tribes into the Western Confederacy to oppose further ceding of Indian lands. But they were defeated in 1812 at the Battle of Tippecanoe
Native American Wars Fact 15: Following victory in the War of 1812, US government policy moved t removing the Native Americans west of the Mississippi River and the Creek War (1813–1814) erupted in Alabama and Georgia. The Creeks fled to Florida where they referred to as the Seminoles
Native American Wars Fact 16: The Texas - Indian wars (1820 - 1875) were a series of conflicts between settlers in Texas and Plains Indians
Native American Wars Fact 17: The 1830 Indian Removal Act was followed by the Black Hawk War fought by the Sauk and Fox tribes in Illinois and Wisconsin. The Five Civilized tribes were removed from their homelands and forced to Oklahoma on the infamous Trail of Tears. A series of Seminole Wars followed
Native American Wars Fact 18: Eastern, Northern and Southwestern Tribes were pushed out of their homelands and by the 1840s the US Army and various Indian tribes were in a continuous state of war
Native American Wars Fact 19: Numerous conflicts erupted with tribes in the Northwest including the Comanche Wars (1836–1877), the Cayuse War (1848–1855), Ute Wars and the Apache Wars
Native American Wars Fact 20: The Plains Wars (1851-1890) also known as the Sioux Wars, broke out and the US Army faced embarrassing defeats in Red Cloud's War 1865 -1868. The 1876 Battle of Little Bighorn was a great victory when a combined force of Sioux, Arapaho and Cheyenne warriors defeated General George Custer and the 7th Cavalry Regiment. But it was the last major military victory by the Native Americans
Native American Wars Fact 21: The Nez Perce War broke out in Oregon, Montana and Idaho in 1878, the same year the Bannock War erupted
Native American Wars Fact 22: In 1879 the Sheepeater War became the last war fought in the Pacific Northwest
Native American Wars Fact 23: Victorio's War (1879–1880) was immediately followed by Geronimo's War (1881–1886)
Native American Wars Fact 24: In 1887 the Ute War and the Crow War were fought but gradually all the tribes were rounded up and confined to reservations
Native American Wars Fact 25: In a final, futile rebellion was mounted known as the Ghost Dance Movement leading to the Ghost Dance War (1890–1891)
Native American Wars Fact 26: The Ghost Dance War witnessed the death of Sitting Bull and ended with the at Wounded Knee Creek Massacre in South Dakota
Native American Wars Fact 27: The Native American Wars ended as the Native Indians were restricted to lives on the reservations