Native American History Fact 15: The Europeans introduced the horse to the Native Americans which started the Indian Horse culture that led to the migration of many Woodland tribes to the Great Plains. By the 1700's the Pawnee, Cheyenne, Sioux. Crow, Shoshone, Mandan, Nez Perce and the Crees had all acquired the horse and had become highly skilled horsemen
Native American History Fact 16: The conflicts between the most powerful countries in Europe spilled over into the 'New World' as the French and the English fought for dominance of the lands and the lucrative fur trade. Alliances were made with the different tribes in the Northeast and American Indians were drawn into the long conflict known as the French and Indian Wars (1675-1760)
Native American History Fact 17: The Hudson Bay Company (HBC), which specialized in fur trading with the Native American tribes, was first established in 1780
Native American History Fact 18: The American War of Independence (1775 - 1783) erupted. Many tribes became involved in the conflict, allied to either the British or the Americans
Native American History Fact 19: The 1783 Treaty of Paris and ended the American Revolutionary War and established the early U.S. boundaries. The government of the new United States of America hoped to maintain peace with the American Indians on the frontier but
Native American History Fact 20: After the American Revolution the government of the new United States of America hoped to maintain peace with the Native American Indians on the frontier. But as time passed treaties were broken and promises of payment for land taken were not fulfilled by the US government
Native American History Fact 21: The Lewis and Clark Expedition explored and mapped the US lands bought in the 1803 Louisiana Purchase fuelling the drive for Westward Expansion
Native American History Fact 22: Following the War of 1812 the US government policy turned to one of removal of the Indians west of the Mississippi River
Native American History Fact 23: The Creek War (1813–1814) broke out in Alabama and Georgia and many tribe members move south to Spanish Florida. The refugee Creeks begin to be referred to as the Seminole. The First Seminole War was fought 1817-1818
Native American History Fact 24: The 1820 Land Act led to the future confiscation of lands from Native Americans and lower cost land for settlers in the west
Native American History Fact 25: Steamboats began to appear on western rivers and in 1811 the construction of the Cumberland Road began making it easier to travel. Then came the railroads. As settlers continued to migrate westward they made settlements on Indian lands and demanded and received protection by the Army.
Native American History Fact 26: The Indian Removal Act was signed into law on May 28, 1830. The new law gave President Andrew Jackson, a dedicated enemy of the Native Americans, the power to exchange land west of the Mississippi for the southeastern territory of the Five Civilized Tribes who consisted of the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles.
Native American History Fact 27: The Department of Indian Affairs was established and the government adopted the policy of Segregation, moving the tribes on to Indian reservations in Oklahoma
Native American History Fact 28: The Five Civilized tribes were removed from their tribal homelands - culminating in the tragic history of the 1000 mile march during the dead of winter called the Trail of Tears
Native American History Fact 29: Chief Osceola led the Seminole resistance movement against their forced re-location to Oklahoma beginning the Second Seminole War (1835 - 1842)
Native American History Fact 30: The 2000 mile long Oregon Trail opened in the 1840's bring Wagon Trains of even more settlers who believed in the Manifest Destiny of Americans
Native American History Fact 31: The concept of Manifest Destiny encompassed the belief that the occupation the North American continent, was a divine right of the American people who they believed were culturally and racially superior to other nations and that it was God's will to bring civilization and enlightenment to other races.
Native American History Fact 32: The wagon trains of settlers moving ever westward over the Oregon Trail encroached on the lands of many of the tribes of the Great Plains Indians including the Sioux, Fox, Sauk, Shoshone, Nez Perce, Cayuse and the Shawnee.
Native American History Fact 33: The Apache Wars (1861 - 1900) were fought in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas led by Geronimo and Cochise.
Native American History Fact 34: A series of Ute Wars broke out in Utah due to Mormon settlers taking over their lands
Native American History Fact 35: In 1862 U.S. Congress passed the Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers
Native American History Fact 36: The Plains Wars (1851-1890) aka the Sioux Wars, erupted the encompassed a series of battles in which the US Army faced embarrassing defeats in Red Cloud's War 1865 -1868 led by Chief Red Cloud and the Battle of the Rosebud which led to the Battle of Little Bighorn in which a combined force of Sioux, Arapaho and Cheyenne warriors led by Chief Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Rain in the Face and Chief Gall defeated General George Custer and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army
Native American History Fact 37: The defeats led to the introduction of another US strategy as the deliberate slaughter of the bison herds began to prevent the Native American Indians continuing the Great Plains lifestyle
Native American History Fact 38: It is estimated that over 7.5 million bison were slaughtered from 1872 to 1874. The near extermination of the bison inevitably meant the demise of the culture of the Plains Indians who relied on the animal for almost every aspect of their existence
Native American History Fact 39: The Wounded Knee Massacre followed the killing of Chief Sitting Bull when Chief Big Foot led the last band of Sioux who were massacred by the US Army at Wounded Knee Creek
Native American History Fact 40: The policy of Assimilation began as a means to control tribal government, no attempts were made at integration. The Dawes General Allotment Act was passed by Congress in 1897 leading to the break up of the large Indian Reservations and tribes by the allocation of land to individual Native Americans and the sale of more Indian lands to white settlers
Native American History Fact 41: Native Americans waited until 1969 to be declared citizens of U.S. and in 1979 the American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed