History of Texas

Apache Indian

This illustrated article provides interesting facts, information and a history timeline of the Native American Indians of Texas.

The climate, land, history, environment and natural resources that were available to the indigenous Indian tribes in Texas resulted in the adoption of the Southwest culture and some adopted the Great Plains Indians culture.

Discover the history, interesting facts and information about the way of life of the Texas Indians before the arrival of the white European settlers and colonists.

History of Native Americans
Native Indian Tribes Index

History of Texas Indians
Factors that contributed to the history of the state are detailed in the History Timeline. The history timeline shows the impact of the new comers to the state.

Stone Age History of Texas
The American Native Indians who lived in what is now the present state of Texas led a Stone Age lifestyle - they only had stone tools and weapons, had never seen a horse and had no knowledge of the wheel. The history of the Texas Indians are detailed in this article.

Map of Texas
The map of Texas provides a bird's eye view of the location of the tribal territories and homelands of the Texas Indians in relation to the present day United States of America. The map indicates the location of the State and the American Native Indians of Texas.


State Map of Texas

State Map showing location of Texas

State Map showing location of Texas Indians


Names of the Texas Indian Tribes
Texas is a state of the southwestern US, on the Gulf of Mexico. There are many famous Native American tribes who played a part in the history of the state and whose tribal territories and homelands are located in the present day state of Texas. The names of the Texas tribes included the Apache, Alabama, Atakapa, Biloxi, Caddo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Comanche, Creeks, Koasati, Koroa, Kiowa, Pueblos, Quapaw, Shawnee, Waco, Wichita and Zuni. Some of these tribes migrated to the Great Plains.

Fast Facts about the History of Texas Indians
The way of life and history of Texas Indians was dictated by the natural raw materials available in the State of Texas. The natural resources and materials available provided the food, clothing and houses of the Texas Indians. Fast facts about the history, culture and life of the State of Texas Indians. Discover facts and information about the history of the State of Texas Indians.

  • Name of State: Texas
  • Meaning of State name: Texas comes from the Caddo Indian word "teysha" meaning "hello friend" referring to the friendly tribes throughout the region
  • Geography, Environment and Characteristics of the State of Texas: Gulf coast plain Great plains and low mountains
  • Culture adopted by Texas Indians: Southwest Cultural Group and some adopted the Great Plains culture
  • Languages: Muskogean and Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) language
  • Way of Life (Lifestyle): Hunters and Farmers
  • Types of housing, homes or shelters: Farmers lived in Adobe (pueblo) houses. Hunters lived in Hogans, Wickiups and Brush shelters

History Timeline of the Texas Indians
The history and the way of life of Texas Indians was profoundly affected by newcomers to the area. The indigenous people had occupied the land thousands of years before the first European explorers arrived. The Europeans brought with them new ideas, customs, religions, weapons, transport (the horse and the wheel), livestock (cattle and sheep) and disease which profoundly affected the history of the Native Indians. For a comprehensive History timeline regarding the early settlers and colonists refer to the
Colonial America Time Period. The history of the State and of its Native American Indians is detailed in a simple History Timeline. This Texas Indian History Timeline provides a list detailing dates of conflicts, wars and battles involving Texas Indians and their history. We have also detailed major events in US history which impacted the history of the Texas Indians.

US Cavalry

Texas History Timeline

History Timeline of the Native Indians of Texas

10,000 BC: Paleo-Indian Era (Stone Age culture) the earliest human inhabitants of America who lived in caves and were Nomadic hunters of large game including the Great Mammoth and giant bison.

9000 BC: Clovis Culture (named after artefacts found at Clovis, New Mexico. These people used a distinctive type of fluted arrow point

7500 BC: Folsom Culture (named after artefacts found at Folsom, New Mexico. These people used flint arrow point in the shape of a leaf)

7000 BC: Archaic Period in which people built basic shelters and made stone weapons and stone tools

2000 BC: Pecos Culture begins with changes in architecture, art and pottery for the people who lived in a semi-arid environment

1685: Texas claimed by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (1643-1687) for France

1775: 1775 - 1783 - The American Revolution.

1776: July 4, 1776 - United States Declaration of Independence

1803: The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France for 15 million dollars for the land

1812: 1812 - 1815: The War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain, ended in a stalemate but confirmed America's Independence

1820: The Texas–Indian wars (1820 - 1875) were a series of conflicts between settlers in Texas and Plains Indians.

1830: Indian Removal Act

1832: Department of Indian Affairs established

1849: The Jicarilla War fought between the Jicarilla Apaches and Ute warriors against the United States

1858: Antelope Hills Expedition (aka the Battle of Little Robe Creek) between the Texas Rangers and the Tonkawa against Comanche and Kiowa villages in the Comancheria beginning in Texas

1861: 1861 - 1900 Apache Wars in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. Leaving the reservation attacks were made on outposts led by Geronimo and Cochise. Geronimo surrendered in 1886 but others carried on the fight until 1900

1861: 1861 - 1865: The American Civil War.

1862: U.S. Congress passes Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers

1865: The surrender of Robert E. Lee on April 9 1865 signalled the end of the Confederacy

1867: Medicine Lodge Creek Treaty negotiated in Kansas, results in bands of Comanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne and Arapahoe Plains Indians moving to reservations in Indian Territory.

1867: The 6th Cavalry post at Buffalo Springs is beseiged by some 300 Comanches.

1867: The 9th Cavalry, is attacked at Fort Lancaster by a combined force of nearly 1500 Indians, Mexicans and former Confederate soldiers.

1867: The 6th Cavalry post at Buffalo Springs attacked by 300 Comanches

1870: 1870 Battle of the Little Wichita River between 6th Cavalry and Kiowa Indians

1873: 1873 - The 10th Cavalry consisting of black enlisted men commanded by white officers and called "Buffalo Soldiers" by their Cheyenne adversaries are transferred from Fort Sill, Indian Territory to Texas

1874: Red River War in Northern Texas against the Arapaho, Comanche, Cheyenne and Kiowa tribes, who eventually surrendered

1877: The Buffalo Hunters' War, or the Staked Plains War

1887: Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break up of the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers

1969: All Indians declared citizens of U.S.

1979: American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed

History Timeline of the Native Indians of Texas

State of Texas History Timeline

History of Texas Indians - Destruction and Decline
The history of the European invasion brought epidemic diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, influenza, measles and smallpox. The Native Indians of Texas had not developed immunities against these diseases resulting in huge losses in population. Exploitation including the leverage of taxes, enforced labor and enslavement were part of their history, taking their toll on the Texas Indians.


  • History of Texas Indians
  • Interesting Facts and information about the Texas Culture and History
  • Names of indigenous Texas tribes of Indians
  • Fast Facts, History Timeline and info
  • Map of Texas
  • History Timeline of the Texas Indians

State of Texas Indians - Additional Pictures and Videos
State of Texas Indian History. Discover the vast selection of pictures and videos of Native Americans. The pictures show the clothing, weapons and decorations of various Native American tribes that can be used as an educational history resource for kids and children. We hope that this article on the History of Texas Indians  will assist in your studies or homework and that you will enjoy watching the videos featuring many pictures of the Native Americans. A great historical educational resource for kids on the subject of the History of Texas Indians..


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