Facts about the Caddo Native Indian
This article contains fast, fun facts and
interesting information about the Caddo Native
American Indian tribe. Find answers to questions
did the Caddo tribe live, what clothes did they wear
food did they eat? Discover what happened to the
Caddo tribe with facts about their wars and
What was the lifestyle and culture of the Caddo
The early Caddo tribe were part of a complex
agricultural society part of the ancient
Mississippian culture of the Mound Builders of
North America (700 A.D. to 1,300 A.D.) The
ancestors of the Caddo once inhabited part of
the ancient Mexican empire, but began to move
northeast and finally settled upon the banks of
the Mississippi River and Red River in A.D. 700.
The Caddo people were they were organized into
the Hasinai confederacy consisting of the
Kadohadacho on the great bend of the Red River,
the Hasinai in east Texas and the Natchitoches
in west Louisiana. The Caddo tribe develped and
lived in distinctive Beehive grass thatched
houses. The friendly Caddoans became
allies of the Europeans, and traded with both
the Spanish and the French. By the 1800's cloth
became readily available and the Caddo began to
change their traditional style of dress. The
encroachment of the white settlers forced the
Caddoans to move in 1859 to a reservation near
the Washita River (now Caddo County, Oklahoma)
and then on to the Caddo-Wichita Reservation
that was established in 1872.
Where did the Caddo tribe live?
The Caddo are people of the Southeast Native
American cultural group. The location of their
tribal homelands are shown on the map. The
geography of the region in which they lived
dictated the lifestyle and culture of the Caddo
The Southeast region extended mainly across
the states of Louisiana, Tennessee, Alabama,
Mississippi, Texas, Georgia, Arkansas,
Oklahoma and Florida
Land: River Valleys, mountains and swamps
Climate: The climate was hot and humid in
the summer and mild in the winter
Houses: Grass thatched 'beehive' style
Animals: The animals included rabbit,
wild hogs, fox, turkey, opossum, bear, raccoon, squirrel
Crops: The crops grown in the area were corn, beans, squash
Natural resources: Fruit, seeds, pumpkins
Map showing location of
Southeast Native American Tribes
What did the Caddo tribe live in?
The early Caddo tribe lived in highly organised
villages consisting of grass huts. Each
village had a temple which in ancient times
was located on top of mound that was about 8
feet high and approached by a flight of
Natchez Tribe for more facts).
Caddo 'Beehive' Houses
As time passed the Caddo developed distinctive
Beehive Thatched Grass Houses. These hardy
dwellings were tall and spacious allowing plenty
of room for storage in the upper levels of the
What language did the Caddo tribe speak?
The Caddo tribe spoke in their native Caddoan language.
Their name derives from a French derivation of
the Caddoan word 'kadohadacho', meaning “real
chief” in Caddo. The names of the towns of
Nacogdoches, Texas, and Natchitoches, Louisiana
originate from the Caddoan language. The name
Texas comes derives from the Caddo word 'taysha'
What did the Caddo tribe eat?
The food that the Caddo tribe ate included their crops of corn, beans,
squash and pumpkin. An upright log mortar for
pounding corn usually stood near their
dwellings. They also hunted for meat
from bear, fox, turkey, deer, rabbit and other
smaller game. The rivers near their villages
and they also gathered wild plant foods. Food was cooked into
cornbread, soups and hominy. The people
also grew tobacco and a grain-bearing grass.
The Caddo people who lived near saline marshes
made salt by boiling brine in large shallow
pans. They traded their salt with the Natchez tribe.
What weapons did the Caddo use?
The Caddo Native Indians were known to be a
friendly tribe, interested in trading with
almost anyone. Their enemies were the Sioux and
the Osage tribes to the North. The weapons used
by the Caddo included axes, war clubs, maces, knives,
pikes and bows and arrows, commonly made of bois
de arc wood.
What clothes did the early Caddo wear?
The clothes worn by the early Caddo men wore breechcloths made from bark
fabric or from deerskin. The women wore a
knee-length skirt, also made from deerskin or a bark fabric.
Both Caddo men and women painted
their faces for special occasions and also
decorated their bodies with piercing and
elaborate tattoos. For special rituals and ceremonies
the ancient Caddo wore beautiful feather cloaks
Clothing: European Influence on Southeastern Native Indians
The Caddo Native Indians began to change their
style of dress with
the arrival of the Europeans. During the 1800's
cloth became readily available. They wore leggings and an outer garment called a matchcoat,
a blanket that was
fastened around the body with a sash. They used strips of
cloth, such as wool, calico or silk, wrapped
around their head in a turban style headdress
which was often decorated with a feather plume.