Pueblo Revolt

Spanish Conquistador and Indian

Spanish Conquistador and Indian

Pueblo Revolt Summary and Definition
Pueblo Revolt Summary and Definition: The Pueblo Revolt was a short conflict which occurred during 1680. The Pueblo Revolt was located in New Mexico and Arizona between the Pueblo Alliance and the Spanish. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was instigated by a coalition of tribal leaders, acting under the direction of Popé, a Tewa Indian from San Juan Pueblo. Together they founded the Pueblo Alliance consisting of Jemez, Keresan Pueblos, Piro Pueblos, Tewa Pueblos, Tiwa Pueblos, Zuni, and Hopi peoples. The Pueblo Revolt was a great victory for the Pueblo but the Spanish eventually re-conquered the lands in 1692.

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Facts about the Pueblo Revolt
Interesting facts and information about the significance, specific events and famous leaders of the Pueblo Revolt. The combatants were the Spanish colonists and settlers and the Pueblo Alliance. Who fought in the revolt? When did the conflict start and when did the conflict end? What were the causes, results, effects and what was the significance of the revolt? Interesting history and facts about the Pueblo Revolt:

Fast Facts about the Pueblo Revolt
Name of Conflict: Pueblo Revolt
Alternative Names: Pueblo Revolt of 1680 or Popé's Rebellion
Location: New Mexico and Arizona
Year of Pueblo Revolt: 1680
Combatants: Pueblo Native Americans and Spanish colonists
Famous Leaders: Popé
Governor Antonio de Otermín


Specific Causes of the Pueblo Revolt
What were the specific causes of the Pueblo Revolt? The specific causes of the Pueblo Revolt at a local level were:

  • Forced Labor: Spanish soldiers and priests imposed a harsh forced-labor system called encomienda, which resembled slavery

  • Religion: Spanish soldiers and priests were intent on converting the Pueblo Indians to Christianity and prevented the Pueblo Indians from communing with their gods

The Significance and Effects of the Pueblo Revolt
The effects and significance of the Pueblo Revolt in history is that

  • There was a humiliating, but temporary, setback in the expansion of the Spanish empire

  • Revivalism: There was a surge in the Pueblo movement (revivalism) to purge their homelands from foreign influence and return to traditional, Pre-Spanish ways of life such as beliefs and customs, ritual purification, performance of traditional ceremonies

  • The destruction of all Christian objects and churches


History & Causes of the Pueblo Revolt - Political Policies and Beliefs
What were the causes of the Pueblo Revolt? Some of the history and causes of the Pueblo Revolt were dictated by political policies and beliefs which shaped the historical background to the causes of the Pueblo Revolt

  • Colonialism: Colonial expansion under the Spanish Empire was at first initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and then developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries
  • Expansion: The reasons for colonial expansion were two fold. The Spanish were interested in obtaining natural resources to increase their wealth through trade and, secondly, to spread of the Christian faith through indigenous conversions
  • Culture Clash: Distrust and hostilities grew between the indigenous population of the region and the Spanish
  • Land: The Spanish brought with them the European practice of expansion and of recognizing only limited land rights of indigenous peoples

Spanish Soldier and Native Indians - Pueblo Revolt

Spanish Soldier & Native Indians
Pueblo Revolt


History Timeline of the Pueblo Revolt
This short History Timeline of the Pueblo Revolt provides fast facts and information about the history, years & dates, key events and famous people who fought in the Pueblo Revolt.

History Timeline of the Pueblo Revolt

1540The Spanish explorer and conquistador, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado (1510-1554) explores the area and claims the land for Spain

1598Juan de Onate 1595-1628 establishes the first Spanish capital of San Juan de los Caballeros. Spanish Priests are intent on converting Native Indians to Christianity

1598Spanish soldiers and priests imposed a forced-labor system, called encomienda, which resembled slavery and prevented the Pueblos from communing with their gods

1599Battle at Aroma between Pueblos and Spaniards 

1626Spanish Inquisition established in New Mexico 

1650Apaches start to maid raids in New Mexico attacking and wiping out pueblo villages

1668Popé, a Tewa Indian from the San Juan Pueblo, suggests the Pueblos rise up against the harsh Spanish rule. He is unable to gain agreement to the plan from other tribes who are unwilling to accept any unified leadership

1675The Spanish continue with their vigorous efforts to replace the rituals of the Indians with those of Christianity. Governor Juan Trevino ordered the arrest, imprisonment and corporal punishment of 47 medicine men following accusations that they "bewitched" a local friar. Three of the Medicine Men were hanged and one committed suicide.

1675Popé is one of the Medicine Men arrested by the Spanish, thrown into prison and tortured by the Spanish. He refuses to convert too Christianity

1675To gain the release of 70 warriors take Governor Juan Trevino hostage and threaten to revolt. The Governor releases the remaining prisoners.

1675Popé is released from prison and starts to build a chain of alliances amongst the Pueblo people

1676 / 77The Alliance sends a message to the governor a message declaring that they would kill all the Spaniards before they would permit any more of their medicine-men (Shaman) to be harmed

1676 / 77The Spanish Governor, aware of the conspiracy, appeals to Mexico to send reinforcements

1677A small number (47) of new soldiers arrive in New Mexico in response to the Governor's request for reinforcements

1680August 9: Governor Antonio de Otermin is informed of the planned uprising

1680August 10, 1680 Fray Juan Pio is killed during a confrontation with Pueblos 

1680August 12: The historic Pueblo revolt, organized and led by Popé, begins. They plan to exterminate all Spaniards and the killings start

1680August 15: Popé and Governor Antonio de Otermin meet. Both parties make demands which are refused

1680Governor Antonio de Otermin retreats with his troops, to his residence in the Palace of the Governors, Santa Fe

1680August 20: Governor Antonio de Otermin battles against the Pueblos in Santa Fe, killing 300 Native Indians

1680August 21: Governor Antonio de Otermin and about 1,000, commence a long retreat from New Mexico to El Paso in Texas

1680During the Pueblo Revolt approx, 2,350 Spaniards are killed, missions, together with their furnishings and records are all destroyed

1680The Pueblo Revolt was a great victory for Popé and the Alliance

1681The Spanish attempt to regain territory in New Mexico but are beaten by the army of Popé

1687Another Spanish attempt fails 

1688The Death of Popé 

1692The Spanish eventually re-conquered the lands in New Mexico led by the new Governor, Diego de Vargas 
Picture of Diego de Vargas
Diego de Vargas
History Timeline of the Pueblo Revolt

Pueblo Revolt

  • Significance, causes, summary, dates and history of the Pueblo Revolt for kids
  • History timeline of the Revolt
  • Interesting Facts and information on the Pueblo Revolt for kids and schools
  • Cause and Effects of the insurrection and Revolt
  • Significance, causes events, summary, dates and history of the Pueblo Revolt for kids

Pictures and Videos of Native Americans
Discover the key years, famous people and events of the Pueblo Revolt together with the causes and effects of the war, conflict and battle. The illustrated text provides a really useful educational resource for kids and children of all ages. We have included pictures and videos to accompany the main topic of this section - The Pueblo Revolt. The videos enable fast access to the images, paintings and pictures together with the information and the many facts featured on this subject of the Pueblo Revolt.


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