History of Arkansas

Chumash village - Tule Grass Houses

Caddo People and a Grass house

This illustrated article provides interesting facts, information and a history timeline of the Native American Indians of Arkansas.

The climate, land, history, environment and natural resources that were available to the indigenous Indian tribes in Arkansas resulted in the adoption of the Southeast culture.

Discover the history, interesting facts and information about the way of life of the Arkansas Indians before the arrival of the white European settlers and colonists.

History of Native Americans
Native Indian Tribes Index

History of Arkansas Indians
Factors that contributed to the history of the state are detailed in the History Timeline. The history timeline shows the impact of the new comers to the state.

Stone Age History of Arkansas
The American Native Indians who lived in what is now the present state of Arkansas led a Stone Age lifestyle - they only had stone tools and weapons, had never seen a horse and had no knowledge of the wheel. The history of the Arkansas Indians are detailed in this article.

Map of Arkansas
The map of Arkansas provides a bird's eye view of the location of the tribal territories and homelands of the Arkansas Indians in relation to the present day United States of America. The map indicates the location of the State and the American Native Indians of Arkansas.


State Map of Arkansas

Map showing location of Arkansas

State Map showing location of Arkansas Indians


Names of the Arkansas Indian Tribes
Arkansas is a state in the a state in south central United States. There are many famous Native American tribes who played a part in the history of the state and whose tribal territories and homelands are located in the present day state of Arkansas. The names of the Arkansas tribes included the Caddo, Quapaw, Tunica - Biloxi and Cherokee Indians. The Cherokee Indians were one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they had assimilated cultural and customs of the white settlers and colonists.

Fast Facts about the History of Arkansas Indians
The way of life and history of Arkansas Indians was dictated by the natural raw materials available in the State of Arkansas. The natural resources and materials available provided the food, clothing and houses of the Arkansas Indians. Fast facts about the history, culture and life of the State of Arkansas Indians. Discover facts and information about the history of the State of Arkansas Indians.

  • Name of State: Arkansas
  • Meaning of State name: French interpretation of the Sioux word "acansa," meaning "downstream place."
  • Geography, Environment and Characteristics of the State of Arkansas: Eastern delta and prairie, southern lowland forests, north-western highlands including the Ozark plateau
  • Culture adopted by Arkansas Indians: Southeast Cultural Group
  • Languages: Muskogean
  • Way of Life (Lifestyle): Hunter gatherers and hunter farmers
  • Types of housing, homes or shelters: Asi Wattle and Daub houses, 'Beehive' Houses, brush shelters or wickiups

History Timeline of the Arkansas Indians
The history and the way of life of Arkansas Indians was profoundly affected by newcomers to the area. The indigenous people had occupied the land thousands of years before the first European explorers arrived. The Europeans brought with them new ideas, customs, religions, weapons, transport (the horse and the wheel), livestock (cattle and sheep) and disease which profoundly affected the history of the Native Indians. For a comprehensive History timeline regarding the early settlers and colonists refer to the
Colonial America Time Period. The history of the State and of its Native American Indians is detailed in a simple History Timeline. This Arkansas Indian History Timeline provides a list detailing dates of conflicts, wars and battles involving Arkansas Indians and their history. We have also detailed major events in US history which impacted the history of the Arkansas Indians.

Arkansas History Timeline

History Timeline of the Native Indians of Arkansas

10,000 BC: The first indigenous people were of the Paleo-Indian culture who lived in caves or were Nomadic Hunters

10,000 BC: The Ice Age - The Clovis people populated the area of Arizon

7000 BC: Archaic Period in which people built basic shelters and made stone weapons and stone tools

2500 BC: Gulf Formational Period of the Southeast culture group with development of ceramics and pottery

1000 AD: Woodland period with permanent houses and farming

1300: Mississippian culture period of Mound Builders

1541: Hernando de Soto of Spain explores Arkansas

1673: Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette explore Arkansas River. They were warned of hostile tribes farther south by the Quapaw Indians and ended their explorations

1682: Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claims Arkansas in the name of the French King Louis XIV.

1762: France cedes the Louisiana Territory, including Arkansas, to Spain.

1763: Treaty of Paris

1775: 1775 - 1783 - The American Revolution.

1776: July 4, 1776 - United States Declaration of Independence

1800: Arkansas is taken back from the Spanish by the French as part of the Treaty of San Ildefonso

1803: The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France for 15 million dollars for the land

1812: 1812 - 1815: The War of 1812 between U.S. and Great Britain, ended in a stalemate but confirmed America's Independence

1818: The Quapaw tribe cede their lands between the Red and Arkansas rivers

1819: Arkansas is made a territory

1830: Indian Removal Act

1832: 1832-1839: Removal of the Cherokee Indians, one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", to Indian Territory on the Trail of Tears

1832: Department of Indian Affairs established

1860: Kiowa and Comanche expedition, Indian Territory. To remove the Kiowa and Comanche from the area of the Arkansas River.

1861: 1861 - 1865: The American Civil War.

1862: U.S. Congress passes Homestead Act opening the Great Plains to settlers

1865: The surrender of Robert E. Lee on April 9 1865 signalled the end of the Confederacy

1887: Dawes General Allotment Act passed by Congress leads to the break up of the large Indian Reservations and the sale of Indian lands to white settlers

1969: All Indians declared citizens of U.S.

1979: American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed

History Timeline of the Native Indians of Arkansas

State of Arkansas History Timeline

History of Arkansas Indians - Destruction and Decline
The history of the European invasion brought epidemic diseases such as tuberculosis, cholera, influenza, measles and smallpox. The Native Indians of Arkansas had not developed immunities against these diseases resulting in huge losses in population. Exploitation including the leverage of taxes, enforced labor and enslavement were part of their history, taking their toll on the Arkansas Indians.


  • History of Arkansas Indians
  • Interesting Facts and information about the Arkansas Culture and History
  • Names of indigenous Arkansas tribes of Indians
  • Fast Facts, History Timeline and info
  • Map of Arkansas
  • History Timeline of the Arkansas Indians

State of Arkansas Indians - Additional Pictures and Videos
State of Arkansas Indian History. Discover the vast selection of pictures and videos of Native Americans. The pictures show the clothing, weapons and decorations of various Native American tribes that can be used as an educational history resource for kids and children. We hope that this article on the History of Arkansas Indians  will assist in your studies or homework and that you will enjoy watching the videos featuring many pictures of the Native Americans. A great historical educational resource for kids on the subject of the History of Arkansas Indians..


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