Native American Languages - Culture Groups
The culture groups of Native American are categorised according to the divisions illustrated on the map and details of the main languages spoken by the people of these areas are detailed below. The groups are categorised as Northwest Native Americans, the Northeast Woodlands Indians, the Southwest Indians, the Southeast Native Americans, the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Indians and the Native Americans of California.
Native American Languages - Arctic Group
The Arctic culture area included Alaska, Canada and Greenland and the tribes of Aleut and Inuit people who both spoke the Eskimo Aleut language.
Native American Languages - Sub-Arctic Group
The Sub-Arctic culture area covered inland Alaska and Canada and the languages were divided into two groups. The tribes of Kuchin and Beaver people who spoke the Athabaskan language and the eastern tribes of the Cree, Objiway (Chippewa) and the Naskapi who spoke the Algonquian language.
Native American Languages - Northeast Group
The Northeast culture area covered the Atlantic coast from Canada to North Carolina and the languages were divided into two groups. The tribes of the Erie, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora, Cayuga and Oneida people who spoke the Iroquoian language and the tribes of the Menominee, Pequot, Delaware, Fox, Shawnee and Wampanoag who spoke the Algonquian language.
Native American Languages - Northwest Group
The Northwest culture area covered dense forest and mountains and the tribes of Haida, Chinook, Eyak, Coast Salish, Tlingit, Tillamook and Chimakum people who spoke Chinookan, Athapaskan and Penutian languages. Penutian encompassed a large division of languages spoken in the Pacific northwest, near the Columbia River basin, including Chinookan, Oregon Penutian, Tsimshianic and Utian.
Native American Languages - Southeast Group
The Southeast culture area covered north of the Gulf of Mexico and the 'five civilised tribes' of the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole people who spoke the Muskogean language.
Native American Languages - Southwest Group
The Southwest culture area covered the massive desert region and the tribes of the Hopi, Zuni, Yuam, Apache and Navajo people who spoke a Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) language.
Native American Languages - Great Basin Group
The Great Basin culture area covered deserts, salt flats and brackish lakes and the tribes of Bannock, Paiute and Ute who spoke Shoshonean or Uto-Aztecan
Native American Languages - California Group
The Californian culture area was home to tribes such as the Hokan, Maidu, Miwok, Pomo, Chumash and Serrano people whose languages included the Athapaskan, Penutian and Uto-Aztecan dialects.
Native American Languages - Plateau Group
The Plateau culture area included fast flowing rivers and the tribes of Klamath, Modoc, Nez Perce, Walla Walla and Yakama people who spoke a variety of languages including Siouan, Algonquian, Caddoan, Uto-Aztecan and Athabaskan.
Native American Languages - Great Plains Group
The Great Plains culture area covered the prairies of central North America which was home to many tribes including the Crow, Cheyenne, Blackfoot and Comanche. The people of this vast area spoke a variety of languages including Siouan, Algonquian, Caddoan, Uto-Aztecan and Athabaskan. The variety of languages were due to introduction of the horse by the Europeans which made the hunting lifestyle very attractive to many nomadic tribes.